top of page

BraIn Plasticity & behavior changes


Motor cognition

Research objectives



We study the relationship between cognitive functioning and motricity, in order to deepen this relationship and highlight essential aspects for rehabilitation. We also use cognitive training to improve patients' motor planning and execution.

We also use the EEG to measure participants' performance in motor inhibition tasks, thereby matching reaction times with an electrophysiological index, the P300 wave.

P.I.G.R.O., Nimble Robotics 

Bruno, V., Ronga, I., Fossataro, C., Galigani, M., Sacco, K., Garbarini, F. (2020). Long-term limb immobilization modulates inhibition-related electrophysiological brain activity. Neuroimage, 218:116911.


Fossataro, C., Burin, D., Ronga, I., Galigani, M., Rossi Sebastiano, A., Pia, L., Garbarini, F. (2020). Agent-dependent modulation of corticospinal excitability during painful transcutaneous electrical stimulation. Neuroimage, 217:116897. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116897


Bruno, V., Ronga I., Fossataro C., Capozzi F., Garbarini F. (2019). Suppressing movements with phantom limbs and existing limbs evokes comparable electrophysiological inhibitory responses. Cortex, 117, pp. 64-76. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2019.02.024


Garbarini, F., Cecchetti, L., Bruno, V., Mastropasqua, A., Fossataro, C., Massazza, G., Sacco, K., Valentini, M.C., Ricciardi, E., Berti, A. (2019). To move or not to move? Functional role of ventral premotor cortex in motor monitoring during limb immobilization. Cerebral Cortex, 29 (1), pp. 273-282.


Ferrarin, M., Rabuffetti, M., Geda, E., Sirolli, S., Marzegan, A., Bruno, V., Sacco, K. (2018). Influence of the amount of body weight support on lower limb joints’ kinematics during treadmill walking at different gait speeds: Reference data on healthy adults to define trajectories for robot assistance Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 232 (6), pp. 619-627.


Limanowski, J., Sarasso, P., & Blankenburg, F. (2018). Different responses of the right superior temporal sulcus to visual movement feedback during self‐generated vs. externally generated hand movements. European Journal of Neuroscience, 47(4), 314-320.


Belforte, G., Eula, G., Sirolli, S., Appendino, S., Geda, E., Geminiani, G., Zettin, M., Virgilio, R., Sacco, K. (2017). Control curves for a new lower limbs robotic exoskeleton obtained from the study of joints angles during an unloaded human walking. International Journal of Mechanics and Control, 18 (1), pp. 3-14.


Bucchioni, G., Fossataro, C., Cavallo, A., Mouras, H., Neppi-Modona, M., Garbarini, F. (2016). Empathy or ownership? Evidence from corticospinal excitability during pain observation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28 (11), pp. 1760-1771.


Centofanti, P., Barbero, C., D'Agata, F., Caglio, M.M., Caroppo, P., Cicerale, A., et al. (2016). Neurologic and cognitive outcomes after aortic arch operation with hypothermic circulatory arrest. Surgery, 160, pp. 796-804


D'Agata, F., Peila, E., Cicerale, A., Caglio, M.M., Caroppo, P., Vighetti, S., Piedimonte, A., Minuto, A., Campagnoli, M., Salatino, A., Molo, M.T., Mortara, P., Pinessi, L. and Massazza, G. (2016). Cognitive and Neurophysiological Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke Patients after Motor Rehabilitation. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience.10:135. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2016.00135


Sacco, K., Sacchetti, B. (2016). Mind-brain plasticity and rehabilitation of cognitive functions: What techniques have been proven effective? Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 10 (DEC), art. no. 232.


Bergui, M., Castagno, D, D’Agata, F., Cicerale, A., Anselmino, M., Ferrio, F.M., Giustetto, C., Halimi, F., Scaglione, M. & Gaita, (2015). Selective Vulnerability of Cortical Border Zone to Microembolic Infarct. Stroke; 46:1864-1869.


Garbarini, F., Fossataro, C., Berti, A., Gindri, P., Romano, D., Pia, L., della Gatta, F., Maravita, A., Neppi-Modona, M. (2015). When your arm becomes mine: Pathological embodiment of alien limbs using tools modulates own body representation. Neuropsychologia, 70, pp. 402-413.


Peila, E., Mortara, P., Cicerale, A., Pinessi, L. (2015). Paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesia, post-streptococcal syndromes and psychogenic movement disorders: A diagnostic challenge. BMJ Case Reports.


Amanzio, M., Palermo, S., Zibetti, M., Leotta, D., Rosato, R., Geminiani, G., Lopiano, L. (2014).  Self-unawareness of levodopa induced dyskinesias in patients with Parkinson's disease. Brain and Cognition, 90, pp. 135-141.


Belforte, G., Eula, G., Sirolli, S., Bois, P., Geda, E., D'Agata, F., Cauda, F., Duca, S., Zettin, M., Virgilio, R., Geminiani, G., Sacco, K. (2014).  Bra.Di.P.O. and P.I.G.R.O.: Innovative devices for motor learning programs. Journal of no. 656029.


Garbarini, F., D'Agata, F., Piedimonte, A., Sacco, K., Rabuffetti, M., Tam, F., Cauda, F., Pia, L., Geminiani, G., Duca, S., Graham, S.J., Berti, A. (2014). Drawing lines while imagining circles: Neural basis of the bimanual coupling effect during motor execution and motor imagery. NeuroImage, 88, pp. 100-112.           


Rabuffetti, M., Folegatti, A., Spinazzola, L., Ricci, R., Ferrarin, M., Berti, A., Neppi-Modona, M. (2013). Long-lasting amelioration of walking trajectory in neglect after prismatic adaptation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.15;7:382


Cauda, F., Giuliano, G., Federico, D., Sergio, D., Sacco, K. (2011). Discovering the somatotopic organization of the motor areas of the medial wall using low-frequency bold fluctuations Human Brain Mapping, 32 (10), pp. 1566-1579.


D'Agata, F., Caroppo, P., Boghi, A., Coriasco, M., Caglio, M., Baudino, B., Sacco, K., Cauda, F., Geda, E., Bergui, M., Geminiani, G., Bradac, G.B., Orsi, L., Mortara, P. (2011). Linking coordinative and executive dysfunctions to atrophy in spinocerebellar ataxia 2 patients. Brain Structure and Function, 216 (3), pp. 275-288.


Sacco, K., Cauda, F., D'agata, F., Duca, S., Zettin, M., Virgilio, R., Nascimbeni, A., Belforte, G., Eula, G., Gastaldi, L., Appendino, S., Geminiani, G. (2011). A combined robotic and cognitive training for locomotor rehabilitation: Evidences of cerebral functional reorganization in two chronic traumatic brain injured patients. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5 (NOV), art. no. 146, pp. 1-9.


Sacco, K., Cauda, F., D'Agata, F., Mate, D., Duca, S., Geminiani, G. (2011).  Erratum: Reorganization and enhanced functional connectivity of motor areas in repetitive ankle movements after training in locomotor attention (Brain Research (2009) 1297 (124-134)) Brain Research, 1370, p. 254.


Amanzio, M., Monteverdi, S., Giordano, A., Soliveri, P., Filippi, P., Geminiani, G. (2010). Impaired awareness of movement disorders in Parkinson's disease. Brain and Cognition, 72 (3), pp. 337-346.


Belforte, G., Eula, G., Quaglia, G., Appendino, S., Cauda, F., Sacco, K. (2010).  MR compatible device for active and passive foot movements International. Journal of Mechanics and Control, 11 (1), pp. 29-38.


Torta, D.M.E., Castelli, L., Latini-Corazzini, L., Banche, A., Lopiano, L., Geminiani, G. (2010). Dissociation between time reproduction of actions and of intervals in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, 257 (8), pp. 1356-1361.


Sacco, K., Cauda, F., D’Agata, F, Mate, D., Duca, S., Geminiani, G. (2009).  Reorganization and enhanced functional connectivity of motor areas in repetitive ankle movements after training in locomotor attention. Brain Research, 1297, pp. 124-134.


Tamietto, M., Castelli, L., Vighetti, S., Perozzo, P., Geminiani, G., Weiskrantzf, L., De Gelder, B. (2009). Unseen facial and bodily expressions trigger fast emotional reactions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (42), pp. 17661-17666.


Sacco, K., Cauda, F., Cerliani, L., Mate, D., Duca, S., Geminiani, G.C. (2006). Motor imagery of walking following training in locomotor attention. The effect of 'the tango lesson'. NeuroImage, 32 (3), pp. 1441-1449.


Latini-Corazzini, L., Geminiani, G., Stucchi, N., Gindri, P., Cremasco, L. (2005). Visual acceleration and spatial distortion in right brain-damaged patients. Experimental Brain Research, 161 (3), pp. 276-284.


Cicerale, A., Ambron, E., Lingnau, A., Rumiati, RI. (2004). A kinematic analysis of age-related changes in grasping to use and grasping to move common objects. Acta Psychologica. Sep;151:134-142. 


Geminiani, G., Latini Corazzini, L., Stucchi, N., Gindri, P. (2004). Acceleration perception and spatial distortion in a left unilateral patient Cortex, 40 (2), pp. 315-322.


Pia, L., Neppi-Modona, M., Ricci, R., Berti, A. (2004). The anatomy of anosognosia for himiplegia: A meta-analysis. Cortex, 40 (2), pp. 367-377.


Carella, F., Bressanelli, M., Piacentini, S., Soliveri, P., Geminiani, G., Monza, D., Albanese, A., Girotti, F. (2003). A study of arm movements in Huntington's disease under visually controlled and blindfolded conditions. Neurological Sciences, 23 (6), pp. 287-293.


Carella, F., Genitrini, S., Bressanelli, M., Soliveri, P., Servello, D., Broggi, G., Piacentini, S., Geminiani, G., Girotti, F. (2001). Acute effects of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation on clinical and kinematic parameters in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 16 (4), pp. 651-655.


Carella, F., Bressanelli, M., Soliveri, P., Genitrini, S., Geminiani, G., Cerri, A., Allodi, D., Girotti, F. (1999). Performance of a repetitive sequence of movements by parkinsonian patients with and without visual control. Italian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 20 (4), p. 266.


Geminiani, G., Fetoni, V., Genitrini, S., Giovannini, P., Tamma, F., Caraceni, T. (1996). Cabergoline in Parkinson's disease complicated by motor fluctuations. Movement Disorders, 11 (5), pp. 495-500.


Parati, E.A., Fetoni, V., Geminiani, G.C., Soliveri, P., Giovannini, P., Testa, D., Genitrini, S., Caraceni, T., Girotti, F. (1993). Response to L-DOPA in multiple system atrophy Clinical Neuropharmacology, 16 (2), pp. 139-144.


Geminiani, G., Cesana, B.M., Tamma, F., Contri, P., Pacchetti, C., Carella, F., Piolti, R., Martignoni, E., Giovannini, P., Girotti, F., Caraceni, T. (1991). Interobserver reliability between neurologists in training of Parkinson's disease rating scales. A multicenter study. Movement Disorders, 6 (4), pp. 330-335.


Giovannini, P., Piccolo, I., Genitrini, S., Soliveri, P., Girotti, F., Geminiani, G., Scigliano, G., Caraceni, T. (1991). Early‐onset Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 6 (1), pp. 36-42.


Bisiach, E., Geminiani, G., Berti, A., Rusconi, M.L. (1990). Perceptual and Premotor Factors of Unilateral Neglect. Neurology, 40 (8), pp. 1278-1281.


Bisiach, E., Vallar, G., Geminiani, G. (1989). Influence of response modality on perceptual awareness of contralesional visual stimuli. Brain, 112 (6), pp. 1627-1636.


Girotti, F., Marano, R., Soliveri, P., Geminiani, G., Scigliano, G. (1988). Relationship between motor and cognitive disorders in Huntington's disease Journal of Neurology, 235 (8), pp. 454-457.


Girotti, F., Soliveri, P., Carella, F., Geminiani, G., Aiello, G., Caraceni, T. (1988). Role of motor performance in cognitive processes of parkinsonian patients. Neurology, 38 (4), pp. 537-540.

bottom of page